"The Distributional Consequences of the Centralization of Primary Education in Ottoman Istanbul" (with Asli Cansunar).

In this paper, we examine the distributional consequences of tran- sitioning to state-controlled mass primary schooling. To derive our inferences, we will leverage an administrative reform in the 19th century in the Ottoman Empire, and geocoded data on philanthropic and public primary schools from the same time period. The project's primary hypothesis is that the provision of education services by non-state actors reflects society’s eth- nic and class divisions; while governmental provision achieves a more equitable distribution of public services.